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Old 08-02-2007, 01:37 AM   #13
Mr. Wyndham
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Advanced Electronic Throttle Control
GM Powertrain has led the industry in applying electronic throttle control (ETC) to its Vortec V8s, which are now equipped with ETC in all applications. The Gen IV Vortec 6.0L introduces the next generation in truck ETC.

With ETC, there is no mechanical link between the accelerator pedal and the throttle body. A sensor at the pedal measures pedal angle and sends a signal to the engine control module (ECM), which in turn directs an electric motor to open the throttle at the appropriate rate and angle. ETC delivers a number of benefits to the customer. Besides throttle pedal angle, the ECM measures other data, including the transmission’s shift patterns and traction at the drive wheels, in determining how far to open the throttle. ETC delivers outstanding throttle response and greater reliability than a mechanical connection, which typically uses a cable that requires adjustment—and sometimes breaks. Cruise control electronics are integrated into the system, further improving reliability and simplifying engine assembly.

The Gen IV Vortec 6.0L takes ETC to the next level by taking advantage of capability built into its advanced E38 ECM (below) and further streamlining the system. Its up-integrated ETC system eliminates a Throttle Actuator Control (TAC) module. The TAC takes commands from the ECM and then operates the electric motor that opens and closes the throttle. The E38 manages the throttle directly, without a TAC. Eliminating the TAC reduces cost and improves reliability. The direct link between the ECM and the throttle motor improves throttle response time (albeit in millisecond increments that are not apparent to the driver) and improves system security by removing a device (the TAC) the must be monitored for malfunction

E38 Engine Control Module
An advanced controller manages the multitude of operations that occur within the Vortec 6.0L every split second. The E38 is the mid-line controller in GM Powertrains new family of engine control modules (ECM), which will direct nearly all the engines in Powertrain’s line-up. In combination with advanced sensor technology, the E38 includes the ability to control and synchronize advanced technologies such as Active Fuel Management and cam-in-block variable valve timing.

The E38 features 32-bit processing, compared to the conventional 16-bit processing in previous Vortec engines. The E38 operates at 59 MHz, with 32 megabytes of flash memory, 128 kilobytes of RAM and a high-speed CAN bus, and it synchronizes more than 100 functions, from spark timing to cruise control operation to traction control calculations. The E38 works roughly 50 times faster than the first computers used on internal combustion engines in the late 1970s, which managed five or six functions.

The family strategy behind GM’s new ECMs allows engineers to apply standard manufacturing and service procedures to all powertrains, and quickly upgrade certain engine technologies while leaving others alone. It creates both assembly and procurement efficiencies, as well as volume sourcing. In short, it creates a solid, flexible, efficient engine-control foundation, allowing engineers to focus on innovations and get them to market more quickly. The family of controllers means the ECM and corresponding connectors can be packaged and mounted identically in virtually every GM vehicle. Powertrain creates all the software for the three ECMs, which share a common language and hardware interface that’s tailored to each vehicle.

The E38 also applies a new, rate-based monitoring protocol sometimes known as run-at-rate diagnostics. Rate-based diagnostics improve the robustness of the Onboard Diagnostics System (OBD II) and ensure optimal performance of emissions control systems. The new software increases the frequency at which the ECM checks various Vortec 6.0L systems, and particularly emissions-control systems such as the catalytic converter and oxygen sensors. Rate-based diagnostics more reliably monitor real-word operation of these systems, and allow regulatory agencies to more easily measure and certify emissions compliance.

58X Ignition System
The Vortec 6.0L has an advanced 58X crankshaft position encoder to ensure that ignition timing is accurate throughout its operating range. The new 58X crankshaft ring and sensor provide more immediate, accurate information on the crankshaft’s position during rotation. This allows the E38 ECM to adjust ignition timing with greater precision, which optimizes performance and economy. Engine starting is also more consistent in all operating conditions.

In conjunction with 58X crankshaft timing, the Gen IV Vortec V8s apply the latest digital cam-timing technology. The cam sensor is now located in the front engine cover, and it reads a 4X sensor target on the cam sprocket. The target ring has four equally spaced segments that communicate the camshaft’s position more quickly and accurately than previous systems with a single segment. It provides precise control required for variable valve timing.

The dual 58X/4X measurement ensures extremely accurate timing for the life of the engine. Moreover, it provides an effective back-up system in the event one sensor fails.

Enhanced Noise, Vibration and Harshness Control
The Gen IV Vortec V8s were developed for quieter operation, with virtually every system or component reviewed in an effort to reduce noise, vibration and harshness. Quiet features built into the engines are complemented by improved engine cradles and mounting systems. These help reduce vibrations transmitted through the chassis and into the passenger compartment.

The NVH enhancements include floating pin pistons, which reduce noise and increase durability. These pistons have wrist pins that “float” inside the rod bushing and the pin bores in the piston barrel. Compared to a conventional fixed pin assembly, in which the connecting rod is fixed to the piston’s wrist pin and the pin rotates in the pin bore, the floating pins reduce stress on the pin. They allow tighter pin to pin-bore tolerances and reduce noise generated as the piston moves through the cylinder. To further reduce wear, the pistons are coated with a polymer material, which limits bore scuffing, or abrasion of the cylinder wall over time from the piston’s up-down motion. The polymer coating also dampens noise generated by the piston’s movement. The result for the customer is less engine wear, improved durability and quieter operation.

The Gen IV Vortecs also feature a new heavy-duty timing chain developed expressly for quiet operation. The chain, which connects the cam and crankshaft, is validated for 200,000 miles of operation and fitted with a new leaf-spring dampener. Even the most durable chains stretch with time. In many engines they must be adjusted or replaced at scheduled intervals. The Vortec 6.0L’s chain dampener maintains optimal chain tension for the life of the engine and eliminates any flapping motion that might develop as the chain stretches with mileage. It ensures that the timing chain operates as smoothly and quietly as new, even as the engine accumulates high mileage.

Exhaust manifolds were developed to improve durability and sealing and reduce operational noise. Cast nodular iron was the material of choice for its basic durability and excellent heat management properties. The manifolds feature saw cuts along their flange, or the surface where they mate to the engine. Originally developed for the big-block Vortec 8.1L, these cuts split the flange into three separate sections, allowing each section to move under extreme hot-cold temperature fluctuations without interacting with, or creating stress on, another section. The cuts virtually eliminate friction on –and movement of—the exhaust manifold gaskets. This helps ensure proper sealing for the life of the engine and reduces the chance of gasket failure.

The exhaust manifolds are fitted with new triple-layer heat shields fabricated from stainless steel and insulating material. The shields limit heat transfer from the engine to the engine bay, allowing the Vortec 6.0L to reach optimal operating temperature more quickly, yet reducing heat in the engine compartment once that temperature is achieved. They also dampen the sound of exhaust gas rushing through the manifolds and further reduce the amount of engine operational noise that finds its way into the vehicle interior.

Smaller Ignition Coils
The Vortec 6.0L’s individual coil-near-plug ignition features advanced coils developed for the LS2 and LS7 Corvette V8s. The new coils are smaller and lighter than those used on previous Vortec V8s, and while they are still mounted on the rocker covers, they attach with a new mounting bracket that simplifies engine assembly. An individual coil for each spark plug delivers maximum voltage and consistent spark density, with no variation between cylinders.

Iridium Tip Spark Plugs
Improvements to the Vortec 6.0L’s ignition system include advanced spark-plug technology. Its spark plugs have an iridium electrode tip and an iridium core in the conductor. The iridium plug has a recommended life of 100,000 miles, but it offers a number of advantages over the platinum-tip plugs previously used in the Vortec V8s.

The iridium spark plug has higher internal resistance, maintaining optimal spark density over its useful life. Its “self-cleaning” properties are improved, decreasing potential for plug fouling and further reducing the likelihood of maintenance over the 100,000-mile plug life. The electrode design improves combustion efficiency for maximum fuel economy and minimum emissions. Finally, iridium is more plentiful than platinum, reducing the plug’s material cost and preserving scarce noble metals.

The Vortec V8s have fueled GM’s leadership in truck sales because they provide the right technology for the job. Case in point: the Gen IV Vortec 6.0Ls.

The cast-iron block Vortec 6.0L (RPO LY6) was developed for heavy-duty applications, such as the all-new Chevy Silverado and GMC Sierra 2500 HDs. The LY6 has undergone the most rigorous lab- and road-testing process in small-block history. It’s validated to achieve 200,000 miles of operation in typical applications. The aluminum-block 6.0L was developed for maximum towing capability in vehicles like the Chevy Suburban. Its Active Fuel Management cylinder-deactivation technology improves fuel-economy when the trailer is empty or left behind.

The Gen IV Vortec 6.0Ls build on the solid foundation laid by their immediate predecessors: The Gen III Vortec V8s. Gen III introduced a host of advanced technologies to the overhead-valve V8, including aluminum cylinder heads, a thermoplastic intake manifold and electronic throttle control. Cylinder heads were designed with replicated ports that are identical in every detail, allowing constant cylinder-to-cylinder airflow. The valvetrain was developed on the belief that lighter is more efficient. A steel camshaft provides excellent durability. Steel roller rockers add stiffness, allowing greater engine speed with less vibration. Hydraulic roller lifters reduce friction for better fuel economy and wear resistance.

With their increase in output and fuel efficiency, the Gen IV small blocks share their predecessors’ low-maintenance requirements. The spark plugs extend anticipated plug life to 100,000 miles, while the coolant maintains its cooling and corrosion-inhibiting properties for 150,000 miles. Scheduled maintenance is limited to oil changes, and thanks to GM’s industry-leading Oil Life System, a customer should never pay for an unnecessary change. The Vortec 6.0L’s ECM records engine temperature, length of operation at a given temperature and several other operating parameters, and then indicates an oil change when it's actually needed, rather than according to a predetermined interval.

2007 Vortec Max 6.0L V8 ( L76 )
Type: 6.0L Gen IV V8 Small Block
Displacement: 5967cc (364 ci)
Compression ratio: 9.6:1
Valve configuration: overhead valves (2 valves per cylinder)
Assembly site: Silao, Mexico
Valve lifters: hydraulic roller
Firing order: 1 - 8 - 7 - 2 - 6 - 5 - 4 - 3
Bore x stroke: 101.6 x 92mm
Fuel system: sequential fuel injection ( SFI )
Fuel type: regular unleaded
Fuel shut off: 6000 RPM
Emissions controls: catalytic converter
three-way catalyst
positive crankcase ventilation
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Holden 355hp ( 265 kw ) @ 5400 rpm ( preliminary )

Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Holden 365lb-ft ( 495 Nm) @ 4400 rpm ( preliminary )

Block: cast aluminum
Cylinder head: cast aluminum
Intake manifold: composite
Exhaust manifold: cast nodular iron
Main bearing caps: powder metal
Crankshaft: cast nodular iron with undercut and rolled fillets
Camshaft: hollow steel
Connecting rods: powder metal
Additional features: extended life spark plugs
extended life coolant
Oil Life System
electronic throttle control
"Keep the faith." - Fbodfather
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