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Old 07-06-2010, 10:07 PM   #1
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Old 07-06-2010, 10:18 PM   #2
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Freemartin Syndrome in Cattle
Freemartin syndrome is a form of sexual abnormality in mammals. It occurs when a female gives birth to male and female twins. This commonly results in the female offspring displaying traits of the male reproductive system and an incomplete female reproductive system, therefore rendering her infertile. In dairy operations, this infertility results in an unprofitable pregnancy, as neither offspring can be used for dairy production and must be sold cheaply as dairy beef. In Portrait of a Burger as a Young Calf, author Peter Lovenheim claims that “in about 85 percent of cases in which a female calf is born twin to a male hormones circulate into the unborn female and render her sterile.” Although the exact percentage of infertile female calves is not certain and differs from study to study, it is true that a high percentage of heifers born co-twin to a bull are infertile.
The freemartin syndrome was correctly explained first by Julius Tandler, Karl Keller, and Frank Lillie. Before their work, it was believed that freemartins resulted from twinning in a male embryo, with the reproductive development being segregated to only one twin, leading to the other becoming a freemartin. [Freeman, 2007] Tandler, Keller, and Lillie concluded that freemartins are actually caused when the chorionic blood vessels of a female fetus’s placenta are joined with those of a male fetus’s placenta in the uterus. This results in the sharing of blood, antigens, and hormones between the two fetuses. The complete development of the female reproductive system is suppressed due to the presence of male hormones such as testosterone. The hormones appear to interfere with the differentiation of stem cells of the fetal ovary and other reproductive structures. In many occasions, the female begins to develop characteristics of the male reproductive tract instead. [Lillie, 1917; Capel, Coveney, 2004] This generally occurs somewhere between 49 to 52 days after fertilization. [Eldridge, Blazak 1976] After this time period, development of the female reproductive system is halted completely. Physical analysis of a freemartin shows a shortened ****** a third of the size of a normal heifer’s and a lack of a cervix or ovaries. The influence of the male hormones becomes obvious with the presence of palpable abdominal testes, an enlarged clitoris, and the presence of coarse vulvar hair. [Rothe et. al, 1961; Padula, 2005] Upon further development four months after the freemartin is born, analysis shows an underdeveloped uterus and dangling fallopian tubes. Examination of the testes reveals them to be histologically normal. [Rothe et. al, 1961] As a result of this abnormal and incomplete reproductive system, freemartins are infertile.
Anomalies in the reproductive system are not the only physiological traits of a freemartin. Studies show that freemartins generally have increased muscle mass and larger bones than normal heifers. Overall measurements in height and length closely resemble that of a bull rather than a heifer. [Rothe et. al, 1961] Abnormalities in the udders and teats can also arise as the heifer reaches puberty. In contrast, the bull twin is affected far less by the joining of blood vessels and mixing of hormones in utero and most commonly display only a reduction in size of the testes. This can lead to decreased or abnormal sperm production when matured. Besides this, there are seldom any other reproductive or physiological abnormalities in the bull twin. This difference in effects between the sexes appears to be caused by earlier development of the reproductive organs in the male than the female. As such, most of the cells have already differentiated before the female hormones can affect them. [Padula, 2005]
Genetics also plays a role in the creation of a freemartin. Chromosomal analysis of freemartins reveals both the female XX and male XY chromosomes. The presence of the Y chromosome in the female’s white blood cells reveals the female to be a *******, a genetic condition in which an organism’s genetic makeup contains chromosomes from two zygotes. [Padula, 2005] The mixing of these chromosomes, in conjunction with the introduction of male hormones, causes the abnormalities to the reproductive tract as described above. It is therefore possible to determine a heifer twin’s fertility by examining its karyotype for both sex chromosomes. [Herschler et. al, 1966] In addition, blood typing can also be used in order to detect possible XX/XY chimerism. In most cases, the presence of male chromosomes in a female twin denotes sterility.
Determining the percentage of heifers born co-twin to a bull that are freemartins is no easy task. Estimates from various studies range from 80% to 95%. [Padula, 2005] The difficulty in ascertaining a more precise percentage is partly due to most dairy operations immediately culling heifers born with a bull upon birth as it is assumed that the heifer is a freemartin and therefore useless for dairy production. Therefore, the percentage of these discarded heifers that are actually fertile cannot be ascertained. In addition, freemartins are sometimes born without a male twin. These instances are known as single-born freemartins. Single-born freemartins typically occur when the male twin survives in utero long enough to influence the development of the female but dies shortly afterwards and is reabsorbed by the cow. [Padula, 2005] As such, without testing for the male XY chromosome in the female’s white blood cells, it can be difficult to determine whether an infertile heifer is actually a single-born freemartin or infertile from other causes.
While a high percentage of heifers born co-twin to a bull are sterile, there have been cases of fertility reported. One case at the Ontario Veterinary College revealed a fertile heifer who had been born co-twin to a bull. Physical examination showed a normal external reproductive tract. The heifer was also three months pregnant. Chromosomal analysis revealed that both the male XY and female XX chromosomes were present, meaning that joining of blood vessels in utero must have occurred, yet a freemartin was not produced. [Smith et. al, 1977] It was concluded that there must be a specific timeframe in which the chorionic blood vessels must be joined in utero in order to affect the development of the female’s reproductive tract. [Eldridge, Blazak 1976] In the case of a fertile heifer born with a bull twin, the chorionic blood vessels must have been joined some time after the ovaries had been developed. [Smith et. al, 1977] Even so, these heifers often have problems with parturition as the male hormones still had some effect on the development of the rest of the female’s reproductive system outside of the ovaries. [Eldridge, Blazak 1976]
Peter Lovenheim’s claim that about 85% of male-female twinning in cattle will lead to a freemartin appears to be supported by most scientific studies. While a fertile heifer can result from male-female twins, this occasion is rare. In the majority of cases, male-female twinning in cattle will lead to an infertile heifer. The only discrepancy with Lovenheim’s claim compared to the aforementioned studies deals with the percentage of heifers born co-twin to a bull that are freemartins, a figure which can only be roughly estimated.

Most mammals, including humans, have two sex-determining chromosomes. The X-chromosome is present in all mammals regardless of sex. The second chromosome determines the sex of the animal. An additional X-chromosome denotes a female, while the presence of a Y-chromosome results in a male. Recent studies have shown that the Y-chromosome, once thought to be diminishing in importance and effect, is actually evolving more rapidly than any other part of the human genome. This topic was chosen as it presents an interesting look into how the human genome is continually changing and evolving. It ties in with the genetic studies currently being presented in this class.
Nature has created a failsafe between the two sex determining chromosomes in order to prevent gender mutations. The X and Y chromosomes are unable to exchange genetic information, therefore preventing male genes from causing chaos with the female chromosome. (Wade, 2009) Therefore, the Y-chromosome’s lack of a reproductive counterpart to exchange genetic information with, coupled with the fact that it has less genes than any other chromosome, has led many researchers to believe that it would eventually become dormant or even completely die out. This in turn led researchers to further ponder whether or not men would eventually become extinct 50,000 years into the future. (Borenstein, 2010)
The theory of the Y-chromosome’s stagnant nature has been disproven by new information presented in the journal Nature. A study was conducted comparing the Y-chromosome of humans to that of chimpanzees, the most genetically similar species to humans. It was discovered that although the overall genetic code of humans and chimpanzees differ by a mere 2 percent, the Y-chromosomes differ by almost 30 percent. Some genes located on the human Y-chromosome were not even present on the chimpanzee’s. This new information is leading many scientists to conclude that the Y-chromosome is evolving much more rapidly than any other human chromosome. (Borenstein, 2010) While this does not imply that men are evolving faster than women, it does mean that the Y-chromosome could have a greater effect on human evolution in the future. (Wade, 2010)
The authors of the study, Dr. David Page and Jennifer Hughes offer two possible reasons for the evolution of the Y-chromosome. First, when mutations do occur, the lack of a reproductive counterpart prevents said mutations from being masked. This leads to genetic diversity. If a harmful mutation arises, the Y-chromosome has the ability to recombine with itself in order to prevent the loss of genes. (Wade, 2009) Secondly, the process of natural selection may play a role in the process. In chimpanzee populations, multiple males mate with a single female. The male with the strongest sperm generally has the best Y-chromosomes and therefore can effectively compete with sperm from other males for fertilization. (Bagley, 2010) The researchers are planning to continue their studies of the Y-chromosome and the effects of mating populations using rhesus macaques and marmosets. (Borenstein, 2010)
These four articles all deal with the evolution, function, and structure of the Y-chromosome. It offers supplemental information to the topic of genetics being studied in this class. The study helps increase our knowledge and understanding of how chromosomes work and paints a clearer picture of how humans as a species are evolving. This new information may one day help scientists and researchers discover new methods of treating or preventing genetic diseases.
As a result of this study, the theory that the Y-chromosome was either becoming dormant or would eventually become extinct has been disproven. Surprisingly, the exact opposite is true, as the Y-chromosome is actually evolving faster than any other chromosome in the human genome. Although work regarding this subject is not yet completed, further discoveries will enhance the scientific community’s knowledge of the path the Y-chromosome is headed in the future. The articles chosen were quite informative and provided a better understanding of human genetics which will be beneficial for this class. They also brought up the fact that humans are still evolving to adapt to our environment, a subject that is not considered very often.

Imagine a world where you can drive to school or work and back without using a single drop of gas. While it seems as though automakers have promised cars like this for ages, General Motors is getting ready to bring that concept to life with the 2011 Chevrolet Volt extended-range electric vehicle. Scheduled for start of production at GM’s Detroit-Hamtramck Assembly Plant in November of this year, the Volt is set to revolutionize the auto industry. Its introduction will bring three benefits for consumers: saving consumers money at the gas pump, eliminating range anxiety, and providing all the familiarity, quality, and durability of a gasoline-powered vehicle.
The Volt has the potential to nearly eliminate gasoline usage for many drivers. It is powered primarily by a lithium-ion battery paired to an electric motor. This battery is capable of providing power for the Volt for up to 40 miles of electric-only driving. According to studies conducted by GM, around 78% of Americans drive 40 miles or less every day. This means that the average Volt owner could regularly drive to work and back with an additional side trip for groceries or picking up the kids without using a single drop of gas, saving hundreds of dollars a month. The Volt can then be recharged from a standard 120 volt household outlet in 8 hours or a 240 volt outlet in 3 hours. Owners can charge up their vehicles overnight during off-peak times, reducing strain on the electrical grid. GM estimates that less than a dollar will recharge a Volt’s depleted battery pack for another 40 miles of electric-only driving. As such, the Volt will be able to save owners a substantial amount of money over a gasoline-powered car.
In addition to saving money, the Volt is also practical. A common problem for pure electric vehicles such as the upcoming Nissan Leaf is range anxiety. Drivers must constantly monitor how many more miles they have left to drive. If the battery pack is depleted before arriving at their destination, they must find a place to wait for a lengthy, time-consuming recharge or risk becoming stranded on the side of the road. The Volt eliminates this problem through the use of a fuel-efficient 1.4L gasoline-powered generator to maintain battery charge once depleted. According to Volt Chief Engineer Andrew Farah, this generator separates the Volt from other electric vehicles by extending overall driving range on one charged battery and a full tank of gas to over 300 miles. In addition, the generator never powers the drive wheels, supplying electric power only to maintain battery charge levels. This attribute increases the overall efficiency of the system. Because of the extended range, the Volt has the potential to be a primary car for families. Upon reaching the end of the 40 mile electric range and 300 mile extended range, owners can simply refuel their vehicles with gasoline or E85 ethanol and continue with their trip. Therefore, there is no need for Volt families to have to purchase a separate car for long distance travel.
With all of the technology packed into the Volt, it is surprising to many that the Volt’s driving experience, quality, and service life are comparable to a gasoline-powered car. Performance is very similar, and in some aspects superior to a normal compact car. GM engineers have tuned the Volt’s powertrain to accelerate from 0-60 MPH in under 9 seconds. The electric drive unit provides instant torque upon launch, delivering impressive performance for an alternative-fuel vehicle. Lastly, the range-extending gasoline generator smoothly kicks on once the battery is depleted without any loud noises or vibrations. In addition to performance, the interior of the Volt has been designed to provide as much information to the driver as possible while retaining a familiar look and feel. Two reconfigurable LCD displays allow the driver to track his or her speed, electric driving range, fuel economy in extended-range mode, access climate controls, and many other features. The Volt retains all the amenities expected in a modern car, including a hatchback configuration for increased cargo capability. Finally, to ensure quality, reliability, and durability, the Volt has been tested thoroughly. Heavy-use components such as the rear liftgate, doors, charge port cover, and gas tank cover have been torture tested under variable conditions at GM’s Warren Tech Center. The Volt has been subjected to both cold-weather testing in Canada and extreme heat environments in Arizona to ensure survivability in whatever climate owners live in. Features such as dynamic climate control of the battery pack help extend the service life of the Volt and its battery to an estimated 10 years or 100,000 miles.
In conclusion, the 2011 Chevrolet Volt will benefit its owners in three ways. First, it will save owners money by decreasing the number of trips to the gas pump. Second, the Volt solves the problem of range anxiety through the use of an onboard gasoline-powered generator. Finally, the Volt provides owners with a familiar driving environment despite the advanced technology within. The Volt is scheduled to go on sale later this year in the United States and will also be sold overseas in Europe and Australia. The Volt’s powertrain and technology may also find its way into larger vehicles, such as the Volt MPV5 concept recently unveiled in China. With its 40 mile electric-driving range and 300 mile extended range, the Volt is leading the way in the electrification of the automobile and the future of General Motors.

It’s a car that has had grown men and women in tears, multiple times. Tears of sadness in 2002, when what was believed to be the final car rolled off the assembly line, tears of joy in 2006, when a stunning concept car was unveiled to the public, and tears of joy once again in the past year and today, as over 90,000 customers have taken delivery of their brand-new fifth generation Chevrolet Camaros. The new Camaro, Mustang, and Challenger have introduced a whole new era of muscle cars. Their popularity has grown exponentially in recent years, and almost everyone knows at least one person who owns or has owned one of these iconic cars. However, modern muscle cars are no longer characterized solely by a big engine in a small sports coupe. They are defined by a rich heritage, uncompromising performance, distinct design, and modern technology. The fifth generation Camaro serves as the best example of these attributes and is truly the 21st century sports car.
Muscle cars have a rich heritage dating back to the late 1960s. In 1964, Ford Motor Company released the Mustang and sold well over 600,000 units in the first year. In response, General Motors released the Chevrolet Camaro and Pontiac Firebird in 1967, and Dodge began production of the Challenger in 1970. Owners of these vehicles quickly came together to form a strong enthusiast base. These enthusiasts have played an important role in the development of subsequent generations and have even influenced automakers to bring nameplates back. Another key characteristic that ties all of the vehicles in this class together is performance. Camaro, Mustang, and Challenger all feature high-performance V8 engines supplemented by smaller V6 engines. All three manufacturers constantly improve their vehicles to make them faster or handle better than the others. The car that consistently outperforms the others is generally regarded as the best in the segment. The design of these vehicles is also important. The 2005 redesign of the Ford Mustang brought about a new era of modern muscle car styling. The Mustang returned to the iconic design of its first generation, resulting in a vehicle unlike any other on the road. When GM went to design the fifth generation Camaro, designers also looked to the first generation for inspiration, creating a vehicle with several distinct styling cues of the 1969 Camaro but with a more contemporary feel. Chrysler followed suit, designing a new Challenger that looked almost identical to the original. The bold, striking designs of these cars are a key selling point that pulls prospective owners into dealers. In addition to design, the integration of modern technology also attracts customers. Today’s drivers may buy a muscle car for its design or performance but still expect certain everyday features and amenities to be available. Modern technology can also be used to enhance the performance of these cars by working in conjunction with the powertrain to provide the best driving experience possible.
The fifth generation Chevrolet Camaro best embodies the characteristics of a modern muscle car. It has a long and storied history with millions of enthusiasts around the globe. Camaro owners and fans gather at huge events every year to celebrate this iconic car. When General Motors began development of the fifth generation Camaro, enthusiast input was a high priority. GM put together a team of enthusiasts to represent the various Camaro clubs and organizations throughout the country and utilized a great deal of their suggestions. Enthusiasts proved to be extremely influential in convincing GM to spread exterior paint colors across all trim levels of the Camaro. They continue to offer suggestions and critiques of the current model to improve it for subsequent model years. In the performance aspect, the Camaro delivers best-in-class performance. It offers two V8 engines, the 426 HP 6.2L LS3 from the Chevrolet Corvette, and the 400 HP 6.2L L99 V8. Both engines are mated to six-speed transmissions, delivering best-in-class horsepower and accelerating the Camaro from 0-60 MPH in 4.7 seconds. In addition, Camaro offers a V6 engine, the same 3.6L High-Feature V6 engine in the Cadillac CTS. This engine produces 312 HP, best-in-class horsepower when compared to similarly equipped vehicles, while still achieving an EPA estimated 29 MPG highway and 0-60 times of 6.1 seconds. The overall design of the car is unmistakably Camaro. Inspired by the 1969 Camaro, designers sought a balance between the old and new rather than simply copying a previous design. The result is an aggressive, sporty car that receives attention wherever it goes. Features such as wide fender flares, twin exhaust tips, and a short roofline contribute to the iconic design of the Camaro. The Camaro also does not sacrifice technology for performance. It comes standard with features such as an AM/FM radio with CD/MP3 playback, XM Satellite Radio, auxiliary audio input jack, driver information center, and much more. The OnStar service also provides turn-by-turn directions, vehicle diagnostics, and emergency crash response. Camaro also includes several technological features to improve performance, such as vehicle stability systems to improve handling, launch control on V8 models to aid acceleration, TapShift manual shift controls on models equipped with an automatic transmission, and four wheel independent suspension to provide an excellent balance between a smooth, controlled ride and sharp, responsive handling.
In conclusion, the resurgence of modern muscle cars has brought a whole new market to the automotive industry. These vehicles are characterized by enthusiasts, performance, design, and innovative technology. The fifth generation Chevrolet Camaro embodies all of these attributes into an affordable sports car. The Camaro has been extremely successful and had outsold the Ford Mustang for 11 straight months since its introduction last year. As the Camaro’s popularity grows, new advances in performance and technology will continue to cement its reputation as the 21st Century sports car.

The synthesis of nickel chromate did not work as intended. As shown by the x-ray diffraction patter, it resulted in a two-phase mixture instead of a solid solution. Within the mixture were the desired product, nickel chromate, as well as amounts of the original reactants, nickel oxide and chromate. A number of things could have contributed to this result. It may not have been heated at the correct temperature for a full reaction to occur. The reactants may not have been ground together well enough. Also, the mortar and pestle used to grind the components may have had contaminants which interfered with the synthesis. The crucible used to heat the components may also have had contaminants. Although all equipment used to grind and heat the reactants were cleaned, there is always a chance that contaminants remain.
The colors and spectra of the nickel chromate mixture did not match the hypothesis or fulfill the overall objective of the project. It resulted in a dark green color instead of the desired red color. This may have resulted because the synthesis did not work correctly or perhaps that nickel chromate simply does not result in a red color. The nickel chromate did the exact opposite of the desired result, as it absorbed the wavelengths of red light instead of reflecting it.

In this experiment, the masses of each starting material required to produce 1.5 grams of the target composition were weighed out and ground together using a mortal and pestle. The resulting powder was then heated overnight. The product was ground once again and analyzed using an X-ray diffractometer. Using this data, it was possible to confirm that each target composition had been produced successfully. The color of the products were noted and they were also analyzed to determine the wavelengths of light absorbed and band gap. These results can be seen in the first table in Part C of the report sheets. It was determined that the LMCT should increase across a group as the metals interacting with the oxygen atoms change. The colors of the compounds are related to the wavelengths of photons required to excite an electron to higher orbitals.

Greg Mortenson’s inspirational book Three Cups of Tea details the story of his life’s work to build schools for children in the mountains of Pakistan and Afghanistan. Many events and experiences in his life lead up to this final mission. Mortenson’s search for his passion in life parallels many college students in their search for the direction they want to take in their own lives.
At first, Mortenson seems unsure as to what he wants to do in his life. Although he did have a job, he did not seem satisfied with what he was doing. Mountaineering offered a release from that dissatisfaction. From his time spent growing up next to Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania, climbing mountains had been a favorite pastime. For quite some time, it seemed as though this was what he truly wanted to do. Mortenson sacrificed time and money to feed this passion of his. When his sister, Krista, died from epilepsy, Mortenson vowed to use his passion to place Krista’s necklace at the summit of Mount Kilimanjaro. Although he ultimately failed at this task, he came into contact with the villagers of Korphe. This experience led him to find a new passion: helping thousands of Muslim children receive an education by building schools in that region. It is through a chain of events and experiences such as Mortenson’s that people are able to find their passion in life.
This quest to find what one wants to do with his or her life is very important. Without a clear, established goal, it is often difficult for a person to get ahead in life. Many people are motivated to work harder in order to accomplish whatever goal they have set for themselves. It gives a person a sense of purpose. This search for one’s passion in life is important especially for college students. Students need to decide what they want to do with the rest of their lives and receive an education in that field. It is common for students to believe that they want to work in one profession but find later that it is not for them. This can often serve as a learning experience, leading the student until he or she finds a passion in life.
Greg Mortenson’s story in Three Cups of Tea serves as an example of how one can find his or her passion in life. One experience led to another until he discovered what he truly wanted to do: help children in Pakistan and Afghanistan gain an education. His story mirrors the search of many people to find their own passions.

The atomic theory as we know it today was developed over the centuries by many brilliant people. Many people suggested theories about their own observations and ideas. As technology developed, these theories would be disproved, confirmed, or altered in some way. Through the development of the atomic theory, a set standard for scientific investigations was created. This became known as the scientific method.
The Greek philosophers Democritus and Leucippus were the first people to consider that smaller particles made up matter. Democritus called these particles “atomos” which later became “atom.” While the ancient Greeks had exceptional ideas about science, they were unable to test their theories due to a lack of advanced technology. They did, however, form the first steps of the scientific method: analysis of known information and formation of a hypothesis.
Other scientists elaborated further on the Greek atomic theories. Robert Boyle hypothesized that atoms were small bodies with similar sizes, shapes, and motions. After Boyle, scientists put forth their own theories about the composition of matter. Stahl, a German, created the phlogiston theory. He believed that phlogiston, a weightless substance found in all matter, caused the decay of matter in fire or oxidation. This theory was accepted for many years. However, Lavoisier, a French scientist, portrayed the use of the scientific method when he disproved Stahl’s theory by his discovery of oxygen. Lavoisier also formulated the Law of Conservation of Mass from his studies. His wife helped to keep extremely detailed records of his scientific work.
John Dalton was the first to propose that atoms were not made up of a single ball, but different particles. He also proposed that one element has unique atoms which were identical throughout the element. Dalton also explained the Law of Conservation of Mass, Law of Definite Proportions, and Law of Multiple Proportions. He is considered one of the main developers of modern atomic theory.
JJ Thomson’s discovery of the electron in 1897 opened the door to one of the best examples of the scientific method. It was carried out by Robert Millikan. He experimented with a drop of oil and discovered that the electron carried a negative electric charge. This helped to develop another part of the scientific method: testing of the hypothesis.
Rutherford, in 1911, further analyzed the structure of the atom. By firing radiation at a piece of gold foil, he noticed that some of the radiation was bouncing off the thin sheet of metal. He reasoned that there must be a solid part of every atom that was causing the deflections. Rutherford called this part “the nucleus.” Schroedinger further improved on the atomic structure idea by adding the orbits of the electrons around the nucleus. Chadwick’s discovery of the neutron in 1932 completed the atomic structure theory.
The atomic theory as we know it today has gone through revision after revision throughout its long history. This is, however, how the scientific method works. As more advanced technology is developed, old theories are found to be false or obsolete. New theories can then be proposed, tested, and either confirmed or disproved.

4. a) The irony of Ethan From living to be one hundred lies in the fact that he is not satisfied with his life. He had the option and opportunity to commit suicide, but he changed his mind at the last minute. Fate would have it that Ethan would be stuck in a life that he hated because that was his destiny. Because he was inept at making decisions based solely on his own wants and needs, his destiny would be him living the life that he hated with a woman who he didn’t love for a long time, one hundreds years or more.

4. f) The first paragraph is ironic because Ethan thinks about how he really does not know his wife Zeena. It is odd that even though they were married, they never seemed to have much in common. Their marriage seemed more out of convenience than out of love. This feeling foreshadows that over time, their relationship will not improve, but will continue to become more distant. The second paragraph describes an instance where Mattie answers the door. Ethan is stuck by how similar she looks to Zeena. This is ironic because Ethan believes that Mattie is everything that Zeena is not- beautiful, happy, and charismatic. This foreshadows the end of the novel where Mattie ends up staying with the Frome family and over time becomes similar to Zeena in behavior and appearance. The girl who Ethan once loved was slowly turning into the woman he hated. The irony of the final paragraph is similar to that of the previous paragraph. While Mattie is sewing in Zeena’s rocking chair one evening, Ethan is convinced that he sees Zeena in the room instead of Mattie. This is ironic because Ethan had wished for the time when he and Mattie could be alone, and when they were, he felt Zeena’s presence throughout the house. This foreshadows the fact that Ethan will never be able to “get rid” of Zeena. His plan was to leave her in one way or another, but he never did succeed.

6. The novel Ethan Frome is a frame story. The novel begins with a man traveling through town. Eventually he meets Ethan Frome, and the main detail and action of the novel take place in this “story within a story”. This both adds and detracts to the quality of the novel. It could be said that the outside story of the gentleman staying with the Fromes is unnecessary because the main action does not occur in this part. The outside story is helpful, because the gentleman shares his observation of Ethan, Zeena, and Mattie as older adults still living in the house together. The short flashback in the novel takes place as the narrator recounts his visit to the Frome household. It is not taking place as the narrator is describing it. The long flashback in the story takes place as the narrator tells the story of Ethan Frome. This is essential to the story because in this flashback, the events that lead up to the present are described. In this section, the main action of the novel also takes place. Of the different structures present in the novel, the long flashback and the frame story are the most advantageous to the story.

7. A scene that takes place in the kitchen in the novel is the dinner on the night that Zeena is away. Mattie had prepared dinner for herself and Ethan, and Ethan had been looking forward to being alone with her. The evening did not go as he had planned. All throughout dinner, he was reminded of Zeena. The family cat sat in her chair and stared at him. Mattie had decided to use a pickle dish that had been treasured in Zeena’s family. The hearts of the characters in this scene in the heart of the home reflect their good character. They do not wish to hurt Zeena, even though they are in love. The fact that Ethan is constantly reminded of Zeena when he was intent on enjoying the evening proves that he feels guilty about the whole situation, and even though he did eventually try to escape being married to Zeena, he knew that he could never truly get away from her. He was tied to her by their marriage, but he also felt an obligation to her for all that she had done for him.

Emily Dickinson’s poem “I felt a Funeral, in my Brain” describes the slow descend into insanity as experienced by the narrator. The tone of this poem accentuates the theme of “I felt a Funeral, in my Brain.” Another aspect of this poem is its use of capitalized letters to connect certain words. “I felt a Funeral, in my Brain” is an interesting poem in the fact that it uses metaphors to relate the events to the reader. Through the use of tone, capitalized letters, and metaphors, Emily Dickinson constructs the theme of her final descent into insanity.
The tone of “I felt a Funeral, in my Brain” intensifies the theme of this poem in many ways. First of all, the tone is obviously dreary and depressing. This is achieved through the constant reference to a funeral, which is always a sad and solemn event. Secondly, the poem takes on a tone of irritation through the use of repeated words such as “treading” and “beating.” Both of these words, when read in the context of the poem, truly create an irritating tone that could truly drive a person to the brink of insanity. Dickinson even states this herself by writing, “I thought/my mind was going numb” afterwards. The tone of this poem greatly helps the author to develop the theme of insanity.
Certain capitalized words in “I felt a Funeral, in my Brain” also develop the theme of the poem. The word “Funeral” is capitalized because it is one of the main ideas of this poem. Words that can be connected are also capitalized, such as “Brain” and “Mind.” Both of these words describe what is being lost, and what the funeral is being held for. Many important words are also capitalized in order to draw attention to them. These are words that Dickinson feels need to be focused upon because they provoke mental imagery. They relate directly to the theme of the poem, a person slowly going insane.
“I felt a Funeral, in my Brain” relates the author’s descent into insanity to a funeral. She senses that a part of her is dying and a funeral is being held for it. A funeral can be interpreted as a transition from life to death. In this poem, Emily Dickinson uses the metaphor of a funeral to describe her transition from sanity to insanity. Another metaphor that can be found in this poem is the mourners. They can be interpreted as the pain and suffering felt from by the author. This becomes especially apparent by the repetition of the word “treading” in the next line. The author appears to be stating that the mourners’ constant treading is slowly pushing her down and causing a mental breakdown. The last stanza of the poem is perhaps the most creative metaphor. It relates the author’s final descent into insanity to jumping off a plank and plunging into a bottomless abyss. Through the use of metaphors, Emily Dickinson creatively relates her dive into the pit of insanity.
Emily Dickinson’s poem, “I felt a Funeral in my Head,” describes the narrator’s slowly developing insanity. The depressing, solemn tone of the poem successfully recreates the depression and isolation the author must have gone through in order to become insane. Capitalized words draw attention to important ideas that are vital to the connotation and imagery of the poem. Most of all, metaphors illustrate the theme by describing what specific ideas are similar to and help the reader to visualize the events that are taking place in the poem. This gives the poem life and evokes mental imagery. Through the use of tone, capitalization, and metaphors, Dickinson paints a vibrant picture of insanity slowly gripping her mind and soul.

“I felt a Funeral, in my Brain” by Emily Dickinson
I felt a Funeral, in my Brain,
And Mourners to and fro
Kept treading—treading—till it seemed
That Sense was breaking through—

And when they all were seated,
A Service, like a Drum—
Kept beating—beating—till I thought
My Mind was going numb—

And then I heard them lift a Box
And creak across my Soul
With those same Boots of Lead, again,
Then Space—began to toll,

As all the Heavens were a Bell,
And Being, but an Ear,
And I, and Silence, some strange Race
Wrecked, solitary, here—

And then a Plank in Reason, broke,
And I dropped down, and down—
And hit a World, at every plunge,
And Finished knowing—then—

Edgar Allan Poe’s essay, entitled The Philosophy of Composition, outlines his own writing style as well as the way he believes others should write. In his essay, Poe states a few major points about his theory of good composition. First of all, he believes that all written works should be kept short, with the exception of novels. By keeping a story short, Poe implies that the reader will be more willing to read it instead of becoming bored halfway through a lengthy story. Secondly, Poe states that before a writer should even begin writing, he or she should already know what the end result will be and work towards that end. Last, the author should use words that reflect the overall mood and connotation of the story. Edgar Allan Poe follows his own Philosophy of Composition in his short story, “The Fall of the House of Usher.”
“The Fall of the House of Usher” is a relatively short piece of literature. Poe attempts to keep the length of the story to a minimum in order to keep the reader focused on the main theme of the poem. He does this by excluding unnecessary details from the story. Poe believed that a short story needed to be short enough for the reader to finish it all in one sitting. Even if a story is superbly written in every way, its length may deter potential readers. Poe pushes the story forward in order to prevent the length from being an issue. Therefore, Poe acquiesces to his own rule in the length of “The Fall of the House of Usher.”
Poe’s next principle in writing compositions states that an author should proceed in writing the story only after deciding upon an end. This is important for many reasons. First of all, a bad ending can completely ruin a story that is otherwise well written. Secondly, readers will remember a story for how it ends more than what happened during the body of the story. Poe works towards the end in “The Fall of the House of Usher” through the use of foreshadowing. For example, the description of Madeline’s disease serves as foreshadowing to her premature burial. The narrator describes her as having a “partially cataleptical character.” (28) He also states that this glimpse of her would be the last he ever saw of her while she was living. The fact that Poe added in the phrase “while living” foreshadows her subsequent return from “the dead.” In addition to this, the narrator’s reading of the poem, “The Haunted Palace” foreshadows Roderick’s own death in the stanza, “But evil things, in robes of sorrow, Assailed the monarch’s high estate.” Lastly, the narrator’s reading of Mad Trist at the end provides foreshadowing for events occurring almost immediately after they are read from the book. Through the use of foreshadowing, Edgar Allan Poe adheres to his own Philosophy of Compositions by working towards the end of the story.
The words of a story often dictate its mood. In “The Fall of the House of Usher,” Edgar Allan Poe uses words that have an odd, mysterious, or creepy connotation. The first paragraph of the story which describes the house is full of words that have dark and shadowy connotations. The setting is described as a dark, dreary autumn day. The house has a melancholy, neglected appearance, and the areas surrounding the house have a dead appearance. These descriptive words help to set the dark and spooky tone for the rest of the story. Through the use of these descriptive words and their connotations, Edgar Allan Poe effectively abides to his own Philosophy of Composition.
Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” abides to his Philosophy of Composition. He left out unnecessary details in order to minimize the length of the story. He also worked towards the end of the story through his use of foreshadowing. Finally, the connotation of the words that Poe used in the story helped to set the tone and help the reader to visualize the setting. By following his own Philosophy of Composition, Poe weaves a tantalizing story with amazing twists that leave the reader guessing to the very end.

Roger Chillingworth, the learned, scholarly husband of Hester Prynne, is an integral part of Nathaniel Hawthorne’s novel The Scarlet Letter. He is the main antagonist of the story. As his name suggests, he is cold and unfeeling to others. This name reveals his true character and disposition, as he created that name for himself in order to conceal his true identity as Hester’s husband. When Chillingworth discovers Hester’s sin, he becomes consumed with revenge against the man with whom Hester had relations with. This obsession with revenge ultimately produces a transformation in Roger Chillingworth from an already cold, unfeeling individual to what can be described as the ultimate embodiment of evil.
Roger Chillingworth’s obvious lack of concern for his young, inexperienced wife Hester is evident even before the book begins. He sends her alone to America to fend for herself, promising to follow afterwards. When he survives after being shipwrecked en route to America, he makes no attempt to contact his wife and inform her of his situation. He instead spends some time with a local Native American tribe before finally making his way to Boston, where Hester is being publicly humiliated for her sin of adultery. Here, Chillingworth decides to conceal his identity in order to exact his revenge on the man that fathered Pearl, Hester’s child. He does, however, appear to be genuinely concerned for the welfare of Pearl, giving her medicine to calm her during her mother’s incarceration. He also forgives Hester for her sin, saying that he does not blame her for her adultery. Chillingworth’s demeanor changes when the subject turns to Hester’s secret lover. A strange gleam appears in his eyes, and causes Hester to ask him, “Why dost thou smile so at me? Art thou like the Black Man that haunts the forest round about us?” (72) Here, Chillingworth’s desire for revenge begins to change his demeanor to pure evil.
Roger Chillingworth’s mentality also begins to change. His obsession with revenge slowly begins to take over his mind. Soon, all he can think of is ways to exact his revenge on Hester’s secret lover. This was not always the case. Being a scholarly man, he is interested in the medicinal value of plants and has learned much about the medical arts. At first, he uses his medicinal talents in a benevolent manner. However, when he deduces that Reverend Arthur Dimmesdale is Hester’s secret lover, he decides to use his talents to exact his revenge on Dimmesdale. Dimmesdale, suffering from guilt, has become sick due to hiding his great sin. Chillingworth volunteers to stay with Dimmesdale and treat his illness. In reality, Chillingworth is only offering his services in order to use his extensive knowledge of plants and other medicines to prolong Dimmesdale’s suffering. In this way, Chillingworth is able to exact his revenge on Dimmesdale. Nathaniel Hawthorne compares Chillingworth to a leech in the titles of Chapters 9 and 10. This is an interesting analogy that shows the fact that Chillingworth, who is supposedly helping Dimmesdale, is slowly sucking the life out of him. Chillingworth’s gradual mental change clearly shows his transformation into what appears to be the devil himself.
Perhaps the most obvious and apparent transformation is Chillingworth’s physical appearance. Chillingworth is described as aging throughout the book. At the beginning, he already has an aged appearance. However, as one continues reading, Chillingworth’s appearance changes drastically. He becomes ugly and even more aged, a result of his thirst for revenge. In Chapter 10, Chillingworth is described as having “something ugly and evil in his face” (116). The townspeople also begin to suspect that Chillingworth may be the Devil in disguise, coming to take Dimmesdale’s soul. In Chapter 14, Chillingworth is said to become the literal embodiment of evil. His physical appearance has changed from that of a wizened old man to the face of Satan. Chillingworth’s transformation in The Scarlet Letter is most evident in his physical change.
Nathaniel Hawthorne’s novel The Scarlet Letter is a story full of transformations and changes. All the main characters change in some way, shape, or form. Perhaps the most interesting transformation is that of Roger Chillingworth, who goes from being a scholarly old man to the personification of evil, bent on exacting his revenge on Arthur Dimmesdale at every opportunity possible. His obsession with revenge has eaten away at his mentality and physical appearance. When Dimmesdale dies, however, he is robbed of his revenge. The concept of revenge was so ingrained into Chillingworth’s head that without a subject to seek revenge on, his purpose in life disappears, and he dies soon afterwards.

Symbolism of the Mississippi River
Mark Twain’s satirical views of the South were often expressed in his writings using symbols. In his epic novel The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, symbolism is used to a great extent. One of the most recognizable symbols used is that of the Mississippi River. The river ties the entire novel together from the start. It allows the story to flow through the novel and brings the characters to each new conflict. It is both a good and bad symbol. The Mississippi River also has different meanings for different characters throughout the book.
The main meaning of the symbol of the Mississippi River is that of freedom. On the river, Huck comments many times about how he feels liberated from the constraints of society. On the river, Huck is able to find an escape from the Widow Douglas’s and Miss Watson’s futile attempts to “sivilize” him. The river provides a pathway to freedom for Jim as well. He is trying to escape the confines of slavery and find a better life for himself and his family. The river also rescues Huck and Jim from perilous situations, such as the gunfight between the Grangerfords and Shepherdsons and the incident with the Wilks brothers. Huck and Jim also find relaxation on the river. Huck speaks many times on the beauty of the river and how relaxing it is to float on the raft. The river, however, also takes on a malevolent role as a dense fog makes them miss the Ohio River and Cairo, Illinois. This forces them farther South and puts Jim at even greater risk of being captured as an escaped slave. The river also causes Jim and Huck to be separated many times, causing both of them a great deal of angst. The Mississippi River is both a symbol of freedom and a symbol of danger.
For many other characters, however, the river is just a body of water that is meant to be used to their advantage. For example, the duke and dauphin view the river only as a means of transportation from one scam to another. They invade Huck’s and Jim’s raft and use them and the river to make money off of people. However, the river leads to their ultimate downfall when they arrive at a town that sees through their scam and tar and feather them. Another example of other characters taking advantage of the river is the riverboat incident. The murderers on board took advantage of the situation and stole much treasure from the unfortunate passengers of the riverboat. Eventually, however, the river shows its destructive nature again, as the murderers drowned on board the sinking riverboat after Huck and Jim stole their skiff. As these examples show, the river is seen as merely a means of transportation to other characters for their own benefit.
For the communities along the banks of the river, the river continuously brings unruly situations. The best example of this seems to be every time Huck and Jim set foot upon the shore. For example, the battle between the Grangerfords and Shepherdsons would never have occurred if Huck hadn’t been brought there by the river to set the events in motion. The river transported the duke and dauphin to each of their scams, which usually caused confusion and disorder within the communities. A perfect example of this is the Wilks brothers scenario. The river brought the duke and dauphin to the town at exactly the right time. This incident caused mass disorder within the town when the real Wilks brothers arrived.
The Mississippi River is one of the driving forces in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. It symbolized freedom and the beauty of nature for Huck and Jim, but other characters viewed the river as merely a means of transportation or a means to take advantage of people. The river also brought stress and disorder to the towns that the book’s characters landed at. The symbolism of the river can easily be considered as one of the most important elements of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and is yet another instance of the superb writing skills of Mark Twain.

Homeostasis refers to a narrow state of flux which allows the body to operate at an optimum level. It is enabled through negative feedback loops and dynamic equilibrium. Negative feedback is the process by which the body returns itself to homeostasis through a system of receptors and effectors. Dynamic equilibrium refers to the body’s practice of constantly making changes through negative and positive feedback loops in order to maintain homeostasis. The best example of negative feedback and dynamic equilibrium in the body is in the endocrine system. It regulates the thyroid gland, which produces the T3 and T4 hormones. When receptors in the body sense that the level of these hormones is low, the pituitary gland releases thyroid stimulating hormone, which stimulates the thyroid gland to begin producing more T3 and T4 hormone. Once the body has sufficient levels of these hormones, the hypothalamus releases thyroid regulating hormone, which stops the T3 and T4 production.

The body has three different buffering systems in order to maintain homeostasis in the body. The protein, bicarbonate, and phosphate buffering systems all work to counteract changes in the pH of body fluids and bring them back to acceptable levels. Blood pH must be somewhere between 7.35 and 7.45 in order for the body to function normally.

Hydrostatic pressure is the pushing force caused by the heart pumping blood through the arteries. This pressure, combined with the adhesive and cohesive properties of blood, moves the blood through the capillary. As red blood cells enter the narrow capillary, they are compressed. Water and nutrients are forced out of the cells and enter the interstitial space in a process known as filtration. This causes the blood to become viscous and hypotonic. As the blood moves further through the capillary, water and waste from the surrounding cells move back into the hypotonic red blood cells. The pressure caused by this exchange is known as osmotic pressure.

The cell membrane is selectively permeable. This means that it will allow certain molecules or ions to pass through it by diffusion and occasionally through facilitated diffusion. Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a semipermeable or selectively permeable membrane. Water diffuses from a region of higher water concentration to a region of lower concentration. The passage depends on the pressure, concentration, and temperature of the molecules or solutes on either side as well as the permeability of the membrane to each solute. Depending on the membrane and the solute, permeability may depend on solute size, solubility, properties, or chemistry. In this way, the cell membrane can manage the concentration gradient inside and outside of the cell and therefore control the flow of water.

The cell membrane is composed primarily of lipid molecules arranged in a lipid bilayer. This bilayer is composed of hydrophilic lipid heads which face outwards and hydrophobic lipid tails which line the inside of the bilayer. It is permeable to water and lipid soluble molecules. However, it is impermeable to ions and polar molecules such as glucose. Because of these properties, movement of materials across the cell membrane is done using one of three ways: passive transport, facilitated diffusion, or active transport. In passive transport, lipid soluble substances and water diffuse through the cell membrane, while ions diffuse through channels in the lipid bilayer formed by integral proteins. For example, potassium ions diffuse through the cell membrane via a gated potassium channel. Another form of passive transport, known as facilitated diffusion, utilizes transporter proteins which change their shape in order to move substances across the cell membrane. A substance such as glucose binds to a specific transporter protein. As the transporter changes shape, the glucose passes through the membrane and is expelled on the other side. The last method of transport is active transport. This method requires the use of ATP from the cell’s mitochondria to provide energy to change the shape of a protein. The best example of active transport is a sodium-potassium pump. These pumps use ATP to change the shape of the pump protein. The pump expels three sodium molecules for every two potassium molecules brought into the cell.
The process of meiosis is beneficial to the survival of an entire species. First and foremost, the fact that meiosis results in four daughter cells rather than two in mitosis increases the chance for reproduction. In addition, the halving of chromosomes allows for greater genetic diversity. This can be extremely beneficial when responding to environmental stimuli such as diseases. While organisms with a specific set of genes will be wiped out, the organisms with different genes would survive.
Epithelial tissue functions to cover organs and line body cavities, blood vessels, and ducts. Epithelial tissue cells are closely packed and arranged in single or multiple layers of continuous sheets. This allows the epithelium to cover and line bodily structures. In addition, epithelial tissue is avascular, meaning that it has little to no blood vessels. This is vital to the tissue’s role as protection as bacteria and other foreign objects cannot enter the bloodstream through a tear in the epithelial tissue. Epithelial tissue’s ability to reproduce quickly also allows it to protect the body as injuries are healed much faster. Connective tissue protects organs and supports the body. It is also involved in storing energy as fat and plays a role in the immune system. This tissue is mainly composed of an interstitial matrix. The interstitial matrix typically determines the function of the connective tissue.
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Old 07-06-2010, 10:19 PM   #3
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NEVER underestimate a college student's ability to write massively long essays.
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Old 07-06-2010, 10:24 PM   #4
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Old 07-06-2010, 10:25 PM   #5
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Old 07-07-2010, 06:20 AM   #6
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9,650 WORDS WINS.
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Old 07-07-2010, 06:30 AM   #7
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9,650 WORDS WINS.
All right, you really are the winner!
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Old 07-07-2010, 11:46 AM   #8
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Old 07-07-2010, 11:53 AM   #9
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Old 07-07-2010, 03:59 PM   #10
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Freemartin Syndrome in Cattle
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Old 07-07-2010, 04:30 PM   #11
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your the winner!


edit: I can't believe that one went over the heads of our college members.
Technically no. Because I did indeed "type 9,650 words," I won as well. The difference is that typing 9,650 words for me cost a lot more money.
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Old 07-07-2010, 05:10 PM   #12
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Woot.

Anyone who's interested in bovine reproduction, the Chevrolet Volt/Camaro, high school literature, college chemistry, and human physiology may find some neat tidbits in all those papers.
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Old 07-07-2010, 05:23 PM   #13
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Fenwick still doesn't win, microsoft word counts 9,600 words...
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Old 07-07-2010, 05:28 PM   #14
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Fenwick still doesn't win, microsoft word counts 9,600 words...
I get 9,650 on mine...
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Old 07-07-2010, 05:37 PM   #15
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Freemartin Syndrome in Cattle
TLDNR
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Old 07-07-2010, 05:39 PM   #16
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Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word Word 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Old 07-07-2010, 05:40 PM   #17
2010 SSRS



 
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I'm seeing spots now.
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Old 07-07-2010, 05:42 PM   #18
BackinBlackSS/RS
Go Blue!!!!!
 
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Holy mother of words!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
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Old 07-07-2010, 05:44 PM   #19
brandotron
I am the internets.
 
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Keep it down in here.
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Old 07-07-2010, 08:26 PM   #20
PQ
1st State Chevy supporter
 
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What does histologically mean?
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Old 07-07-2010, 08:52 PM   #21
FenwickHockey65
General Motors Aficionado
 
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Originally Posted by PQ View Post
What does histologically mean?
On a cellular level.
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My Cars: 2003 GMC Envoy SLE, 2000 Ford Ranger XLT (State-issued)
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Old 07-08-2010, 11:12 AM   #22
PQ
1st State Chevy supporter
 
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Originally Posted by FenwickHockey65 View Post
On a cellular level.
Ah.

Well, I read about 25% of the post and couldn't do it no more.
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Old 07-08-2010, 11:16 AM   #23
Revo1
Camaronogamous
 
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Drives: 2010 2SS/RS
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"Tops off, tach up baby- loud and proud!"
A Camaro lover from day one- 1996 3.8 V6 Camaro, to 1996 5.7 LT1 Camaro Z28, to the sold 2002 5.7 LS1 Camaro SS, and NOW, a [I]6.2 L99 VR 2SS/RS: XS Power stainless full exhaust, Airaid CAI, BMR drop springs and sways, custom tune by Cal Speed- 411rwhp
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Old 07-09-2010, 06:15 PM   #24
CaniacFan


 
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Game over man.. I'm still blind from the WORD documentation.
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Old 07-09-2010, 06:25 PM   #25
LSP2010
IM A GURL
 
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Wat does Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious means?
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1100, Preliminary order accepted - 13oct08
2000, Order accepted by GM ----- n/a
3000, Order acc. by P.R---------- n/a
3100, Order available to sequence- n/a
3300, Order sch. for production--- 21may09
3400, Order broadcast------------ 28may09
3800, Order produced ------------ 2jun09(2G1FT1EW8A9114199)
4000, Available to ship
4200, Shipped--------------------9june09

ITS HERE 18JUNE09
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